Edinburgh (or its old names of Èideann, Edinburrie, Embra, Embro or Edina) is the second largest city in Scotland and its capital city.
Edinburgh, located on the east coast of Scotland, on the shore of the Forth river, is the capital of Scotland since 1437. The city was a major center of the Enlightenment, especially because of its University. Its Old Town and New Town neighborhoods were included in the UNESCO World Heritage in 1995.
Leith is the portuary town of Edinburgh, but, although the city was incorporated in 1920, it still maintains a certain autonomy. Due to the development of this port, a lot of ships depart from Edinburgh for Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands.
Edinburgh City’s topography offers many places where the its panorama can be admired:
Arthur’s Seat, overlooking the Old Town and Holyroodhouse.
Calton Hill, where several monuments are located: two observatories, the monument dedicated admiral Horatio Nelson, the old Royal High School. Calton Hill is also the place where the Beltane Festival is held.
Blackford Hill, where the Royal Observatory is located.
As a large part of Scotland, Edinburgh has a temperate climate, rather mild, despite the northern latitude of the city. Winters are mild, with temperatures that rarely go below 0 degrees. Summers are pretty cool, with temperatures around 23° C).
Edinburgh is famous for its annual festival – actually a series of separate events, which take place at the end of June until the beginning of September. The oldest of events is the Edinburgh International Festival, which took place for the first time in 1947 and which gathers theater performances and concerts of classical music, supported by companies and orchestras worldwide.
Another major cultural event is the Edinburgh Fringe – an event conceived as collateral, but which has become the largest arts festival in the world, with over 1800 performances presented in 2005.
Other festivals that are held in Edinburgh are the International Film Festival, Jazz Festival and International Book Festival.
Very popular is the annual Hogmanay festival, which was originally a simple feast that is held on Princes Street and Royal Mile, but began to be officially organized in 1993. In 1996, Hogmanay was attended by over 300,000 people, fact that determined the organizers to impose a limit of 100,000 people. The four days of the festival bring numerous processions, concerts and fireworks games.
Music, theater and film
Besides the Festival, Edinburgh held numerous other theatrical performances, supported by various companies: The Royal Lyceum Theater, King’s Theater, Edinburgh Festival Theater, Edinburgh Playhouse. Traverse Theater, theaters put on contemporary texts, while productions mounted by students or amateurs playing at Bedlam Theater, Church Hill Theater and the Brunton Theater.
The most important musical stage of the city is Edinburgh’s Usher Hall. Beside this, must be mentioned The Hub, Assembly Rooms and Queen’s Hall. Also in Edinburgh we find the Chamber Orchestra of Scotland headquarters.
The best known cinemas in Edinburgh are Filmhouse and cameo, alongside which there are various multiplex complexes.
Museums and Libraries
The Museum of Scotland, Royal Museum, National Library of Scotland, Writers Museum, the Museum of Edinburgh.
Other attractions of the city: Dean Cemetery, Edinburgh Zoo, Forth Bridge, Forth Road Bridge, McEwan Hall, National Archives of Scotland, Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh.